Water Vocabulary

Bottled Water

Depending on how it is collected or prepared, it may be of questionable quality. Tests indicate that most bottled water does not meet the same standards as tap water. Additionally, all bottled water, even the best, is inconvenient to buy and store.


Distillation is the process of removing the minerals and other chemicals from water. Distilled water can be used in variety of applications such as drinking water, watering plants and filling humidifiers, steam irons and even fish tanks and aquariums.; however, this method is expensive to install and consumes costly household electricity.

Hydrological Cycle

The process of how water vapor condenses in the atmosphere and falls to earth as precipitation. Once on the surface of the earth, most of the water evaporates back into the atmosphere.

Iron Filtration

Small amounts of iron are often found in water because of the large amount of iron present in the soil and because corrosive water will pick up iron from pipes. Clothing washed in water containing excessive iron may become stained a brownish color. The taste of beverages, such as tea and coffee, may also be affected by iron. Manganese produces a brownish color in laundered clothing, leaves black particles on fixtures and as with iron, affects the taste of beverages, including coffee and tea.

Well water from the faucet or tap is usually clear and colorless. However, when water containing colorless, dissolved iron is allowed to stand in a cooking container or comes in contact with a sink or bathtub, the iron combines with oxygen from the air to form reddish-brown particles (commonly called rust). Manganese forms brownish-black particles. These impurities can give a metallic taste to water or to food.

The rusty or brown stains on plumbing fixtures, fabrics, dishes, and utensils cannot be removed by soaps or detergents. Bleaches and alkaline builders (often sodium phosphate) can make the stains worse. Over time, iron deposits can build up in pressure tanks, water heaters, and pipelines, reducing the quantity and pressure of the water supply.

Reverse Osmosis

Reverse Osmosis is the best way to achieve pure drinking water at a reasonable cost. Reverse Osmosis Systems employ a high density membrane to block out contaminants and a granular activated carbon filter for polishing. When water is applied to one side of the membrane only water molecules pass through, bacteria, viruses and hundreds of other pollutants are held back or eliminated through the waste outlet.

Typical Reverse Osmosis Contaminant Rejection:

Sodium 90-95% | Calcium 93-98% | Magnesium 93-98% | Potassium 90-95% | Iron 93-98% | Manganese 93-98% | Aluminum 93-98% | Copper 94-99% | Nickel 93-98% | Zinc 93-98% | Strontium 93-98% | Cadmium 93-98% | Silver 93-98% | Mercury 93-98% | Barium 93-98% | Chromium-6 94-99% | Chromium-3 94-99% | Lead 94-99% | Chloride 90-95% | Bicarbonate 90-95% | Nitrate-3 85-90% | Fluoride 90-97% | Phosphate 93-98% | Chromate 90-95% | Cyanide 90-95% | Sulfate 93-98% | Boron 55-60% | Arsenic + 3 70-80% | Arsenic + 5 94-99% | Selenium 93-98% | Bacteria > 99% | Protozoa > 99% | Ameobic-Cysts > 99% | Giardia > 99% | Asbestos > 99% | Sediment/Turbidity > 99% | Organic Contaminants with a molecular weight < 300 > 99% | Organic Contaminants with a molecular weight < 300 0-99%

  • The above table of nominal rejection performance is for reverse osmosis membranes used in drinking water systems operating at a net pressure of 60 psi and 25°C water temperature. The actual performance of systems incorporating these membranes may be different due to changes in feed pressure, temperature, water chemistry, contaminant level, net pressure on membrane, and individual membrane efficiency. 
  • Although RO can remove iron and manganese, they generally should be removed by other water treatment methods prior to RO treatment.
  • Nitrate removal depends on factors such as pH, temperature, net pressure across membrane.

Water Filter

Any filter that removes one or more elements from water is called a Water Filter. The most common water filters are:


The sulphur removal system uses a galvanized tank (42 gallon provided).

The water is fed in the top and discharged out the bottom. As the water is fed in the top from your existing pump, an air pump that we provide injects air into the water stream just before the tank and helps keep a head of air in the top of the tank. This is where the sulphur gas is let out of the water. It stays in the air pocket in top of the tank until it gets to a level of about 1/3 of the way down where an air release valve (provided) lets the sulphur gas and some air out.

There are other gadgets like check valves, plastic tubing, a brass check valve, mounting bracket etc. that come with the kit. The really great thing about our system is; it is all done under pressure. No open vessels, no chlorine needed, no charcoal filter needed. The rotten egg odor that you smell in your water is a gas. This gas is only released when it meets air. That is why it is strong when it first comes out of your faucet. Our system gets rid of the gas in the tank before it gets to the house.

Water Softener

A water softener reduces the calcium or magnesium ion concentration in hard water. These "hardness ions" cause three major kinds of problems. The metal ions react with soaps and calcium sensitive detergents, hindering their ability to lather properly and forming an unsightly precipitate— the familiar scum or "bathtub ring". Presence of "hardness ions" also inhibits the cleaning effect of detergent formulations. More seriously, calcium and magnesium carbonates tend to adhere to the surfaces of pipes and heat exchanger surfaces. The resulting scale build-up can restrict water flow in pipes. In boilers, the deposits act as thermal insulation that impedes the flow of heat into the water; this not only reduces heating efficiency, but allows the metal to overheat which, in a pressurized system, can lead to failure. The presence of ions in an electrolyte can also lead to galvanic corrosion, in which one metal will preferentially corrode when in contact with another type of metal. The use of water softeners can aggravate this and cause sacrificial anodes in hot water heaters to corrode more quickly.

The typical water softener is a mechanical appliance that's plumbed into your home's water supply system. All water softeners use the same operating principle: They trade the minerals for something else, in most cases sodium. The process is called ion exchange.

The heart of a water softener is a mineral tank. It's filled with small polystyrene beads, also known as resin or zeolite. The beads carry a negative charge. Calcium and magnesium in water both carry positive charges. This means that these minerals will cling to the beads as the hard water passes through the mineral tank. Sodium ions also have positive charges, albeit not as strong as the charge on the calcium and magnesium. When a very strong brine solution is flushed through a tank that has beads already saturated with calcium and magnesium, the sheer volume of the sodium ions is enough to drive the calcium and magnesium ions off the beads.

Water softeners have a separate brine tank that uses common salt to create this brine solution. In normal operation, hard water moves into the mineral tank and the calcium and magnesium ions move to the beads, replacing sodium ions. The sodium ions go into the water. Once the beads are saturated with calcium and magnesium, the unit enters a 3-phase regenerating cycle. First, the backwash phase reverses water flow to flush dirt out of the tank. In the recharge phase, the concentrated sodium-rich salt solution is carried from the brine tank through the mineral tank. The sodium collects on the beads, replacing the calcium and magnesium, which go down the drain. Once this phase is over, the mineral tank is flushed of excess brine and the brine tank is refilled.


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